|Type of content||Vehicles, Vehicle Types, and Routes|
There are various applications that can be used to define vehicular demand for SUMO. Of course it is also possible to define the demand file manually or to edit generated files with a text editor. Before starting, it is important to know that a vehicle in SUMO consists of three parts:
- a vehicle type which describes the vehicle's physical properties,
- a route the vehicle shall take,
- and the vehicle itself.
Both routes and vehicle types can be shared by several vehicles. It is not mandatory to define a vehicle type. If not given, a default type is used. The driver of a vehicle does not have to be modelled explicitly. For the simulation of persons which walk around or ride in vehicles, additional definitions are necessary.
Vehicles and Routes#
Initially, we will define a vehicle with a route owned by him only:
<routes> <vType id="type1" accel="0.8" decel="4.5" sigma="0.5" length="5" maxSpeed="70"/> <vehicle id="0" type="type1" depart="0" color="1,0,0"> <route edges="beg middle end rend"/> </vehicle> </routes>
By giving such a route definition to sumo (or sumo-gui), sumo will build a red (color=1,0,0) vehicle of type "type1" named "0" which starts at time 0. The vehicle will drive along the streets "beg", "middle", "end", and as soon as it has approached the edge "rend" it will be removed from the simulation.
This vehicle has its own internal route which is not shared with other vehicles. It is also possible to define two vehicles using the same route. In this case the route must be "externalized" - defined before being referenced by the vehicles. Also, the route must be named by giving it an id. The vehicles using the route refer it using the "route"-attribute. The complete change looks like this:
<routes> <vType id="type1" accel="0.8" decel="4.5" sigma="0.5" length="5" maxSpeed="70"/> <route id="route0" color="1,1,0" edges="beg middle end rend"/> <vehicle id="0" type="type1" route="route0" depart="0" color="1,0,0"/> <vehicle id="1" type="type1" route="route0" depart="0" color="0,1,0"/> </routes>
A vehicle may be defined using the following attributes:
|Attribute Name||Value Type||Description|
|id||id (string)||The name of the vehicle|
|type||id||The id of the vehicle type to use for this vehicle.|
|route||id||The id of the route the vehicle shall drive along|
|color||color||This vehicle's color|
|depart||float (s) or one of triggered, containerTriggered||The time step at which the vehicle shall enter the network; see #depart. Alternatively the vehicle departs once a person enters or a container is loaded|
|departLane||int/string (≥0, "random", "free", "allowed", "best", "first")||The lane on which the vehicle shall be inserted; see #departLane. default: "first"|
|departPos||float(m)/string ("random", "free", "random_free", "base", "last", "stop")||The position at which the vehicle shall enter the net; see #departPos. default: "base"|
|departSpeed||float(m/s)/string (≥0, "random", "max", "desired", "speedLimit")||The speed with which the vehicle shall enter the network; see #departSpeed. default: 0|
|departEdge||int (index from [0, routeLength[ or "random"||The initial edge along the route where the vehicle should enter the network (only supported if a complete route is defined); see #departEdge. default: 0|
|arrivalLane||int/string (≥0,"current")||The lane at which the vehicle shall leave the network; see #arrivalLane. default: "current"|
|arrivalPos||float(m)/string (≥0(1), "random", "max")||The position at which the vehicle shall leave the network; see #arrivalPos. default: "max"|
|arrivalSpeed||float(m/s)/string (≥0,"current")||The speed with which the vehicle shall leave the network; see #arrivalSpeed. default: "current"|
|line||string||A string specifying the id of a public transport line which can be used when specifying person rides|
|personNumber||int (in [0,personCapacity])||The number of occupied seats when the vehicle is inserted. default: 0|
|containerNumber||int (in [0,containerCapacity])||The number of occupied container places when the vehicle is inserted. default: 0|
|reroute||bool||Whether the vehicle should be equipped with a rerouting device (setting this to false does not take precedence over other assignment options)|
|via||id list||List of intermediate edges that shall be passed on rerouting
Note: when via is not set, any
|departPosLat||float(m)/string ("random", "free", "random_free", "left", "right", "center")||The lateral position on the departure lane at which the vehicle shall enter the net; see Simulation/SublaneModel. default: "center"|
|arrivalPosLat||float(m)/string ("left", "right", "center")||The lateral position on the arrival lane at which the vehicle shall arrive; see Simulation/SublaneModel. by default the vehicle does not care about lateral arrival position|
Any vehicle types or routes referenced by the attributes type or route must be defined before they are used. Loading order is described here.
Repeated vehicles (Flows)#
It is possible to define repeated vehicle emissions ("flow"s), which have the same parameters as the vehicle except for the departure time. The id of the created vehicles is "flowId.runningNumber" and they are distributed either equally or randomly in the given interval. The following additional parameters are known:
|Attribute Name||Value Type||Description|
|begin||float(s)||first vehicle departure time|
|end||float(s)||end of departure interval (if undefined, defaults to 24 hours)|
|vehsPerHour||float(#/h)||number of vehicles per hour, equally spaced (not together with period or probability)|
|period||float(s)||insert equally spaced vehicles at that period (not together with vehsPerHour or probability)|
|probability||float([0,1])||probability for emitting a vehicle each second (not together with vehsPerHour or period), see also Simulation/Randomness|
|number||int(#)||total number of vehicles, equally spaced|
<flow id="type1" color="1,1,0" begin="0" end= "7200" period="900" type="BUS"> <route edges="beg middle end rend"/> <stop busStop="station1" duration="30"/> </flow>
One may notice, that the route itself also got a color definition, so the attributes of a route are:
|Attribute Name||Value Type||Description|
|id||id (string)||The name of the route|
|edges||id list||The edges the vehicle shall drive along, given as their ids, separated using spaces|
|color||color||This route's color|
|repeat||int||The number of times that the edges of this route shall be repeated (default 0)|
|cycleTime||time (s)||When defining a repeating route with stops and those stops use the
There are a few important things to consider when building your own routes:
- Routes have to be connected. At the moment the simulation raises an error if the next edge of the current route is not a successor of the current edge or if the vehicle is not allowed to drive on any of the lanes. If you want the old behavior where a vehicle simply stopped at the end of the current edge and was possibly "teleported" to the next edge after a waiting time, use the Option --ignore-route-errors.
- Routes have to contain at least one edge.
- The route file has to be sorted by starting times. In fact this is only relevant, when you define a lot of routes or have large gaps between departure times. The simulation parameter --route-steps, which defaults to 200, defines the size of the time interval with which the simulation loads its routes. That means by default at startup, only routes with departure times <200 are loaded, if all the vehicles have departed, the routes up to departure time 400 are loaded etc. pp. This works only if the route file is sorted. This behavior may be disabled by specifying --route-steps 0. It is possible to load unsorted route files as an additional file which will load the whole file at once.
sumo may enter an infinite loop when given an unsorted route file with person definitions.
When using attribute 'repeat' to repeat a route. The number of edges will be repeated the given number of times after driving them for the first time. If route is defined as stand-alone route (defined with it's own id outside a vehicl definition), any stops defined within the route will be repeated as well. If the stops use attribute 'until', they will be shifted by attribute 'cycleTime' in each iteration.
When defining a route as child element of a vehicle, any defined stops will belong to the vehicle rather than the route and will not be repeated.
Incomplete Routes (trips and flows)#
Demand information for the simulation may also take the form of origin
and destination edges instead of a complete list of edges. In this case
the simulation performs fastest-path routing based on the traffic
conditions found in the network at the time of departure/flow begin.
Optionally, a list of intermediate edges can be specified with the
attribute. The input format is exactly the same as that for the
duarouter application and can be found here.
<routes> <trip id="t" depart="0" from="beg" to="end"/> <flow id="f" begin="0" end="100" number="23" from="beg" to="end"/> <flow id="f2" begin="0" end="100" number="23" from="beg" to="end" via="e1 e23 e7"/> </routes>
For more details on how to handle routing errors and influence the routing in this case see Demand/Automatic_Routing.
Traffic assignment zones (TAZ)#
It is also possible to let vehicles depart and arrive at traffic assignment zones (TAZ). This allows the departure and arrival edges to be selected from a predefined list of edges. Those edges are used which minimize the travel time from origin TAZ to destination TAZ. When loading trips into duarouter the loaded travel times are used (with empty-network travel times as default). When loading trips into sumo, the current travel times in the network are used as determined by the rerouting device.
<routes> <trip id="t" depart="0" fromTaz="taz1" toTaz="taz2"/> </routes>
<additional> <taz id="<TAZ_ID>" edges="<EDGE_ID> <EDGE_ID> ..."/> ... </additional>
<taz> in sumo-gui the optional attribute
can be used to draw an arbitrary polygon border for visualizing the
traffic assignment zone.
When using TAZ with sumo and duarouter, their edges will be selected to minimize travel time. This is different from TAZ usage in od2trips where edges are selected according to a probability distribution.
Routing between Junctions#
Trips and flows may use the attributes
viaJunctions to describe origin, destination and intermediate locations. This is a special form of TAZ-routing and it must be enabled by either setting the SUMO option --junction-taz or by loading TAZ-definitions that use the respective junction IDs. When using option --junction-taz, all edges outgoing from a junction may be used at the origin and all edges incoming to a junction may be used to reach the intermediate and final junctions.
A Vehicle's depart and arrival parameter#
arrival...-attributes, it is possible to
control how a vehicle is inserted into the network and how it leaves it.
Determines the time at which the vehicle enters the network (for
value of begin is used instead). If there is not enough space in the
network, the actual depart time may be later.
- When using option --max-depart-delay <TIME> the vehicle is discarded if unable to depart after the given delay
- A random offset to the specified depart time is added for each vehicle when using option --random-depart-offset <TIME>
- When using the special value triggered, the vehicle will depart as soon as a person enters it.
Determines on which lane the vehicle is tried to be inserted;
≥0: the index of the lane, starting with rightmost=0
random": a random lane is chosen; please note that a vehicle insertion is not retried if it could not be inserted
free": the most free (least occupied) lane is chosen
allowed": the "free" lane (see above) of those lane of the depart edge which allow vehicles of the class the vehicle belongs to
best": the "free" lane of those who allow the vehicle the longest ride without the need to lane change
first": the rightmost lane the vehicle may use
Determines the position on the chosen departure lane at which the vehicle is tried to be inserted;
≥0: the position on the lane, starting at the lane's begin; must be smaller than the starting lane's length
"random": a random position is chosen; it is not retried to insert the vehicle if the first try fails
"free": a free position (if existing) is used
"random_free": at first, ten random positions are tried, if all fail, "free" is applied
"base": the vehicle is tried to be inserted at the position which lets its back be at the beginning of the lane (vehicle's front position=vehicle length)
"last": the vehicle is inserted with the given speed as close as possible
"stop": if the vehicle has a stop defined, it will depart at the endPos of the stop. If no stop is defined, the behavior defaults to
"base"behind the last vehicle on the lane. If the lane is empty it is inserted at the end of the lane instead. When departSpeed="max" is set, vehicle speed will not be adapted.
Determines the speed of the vehicle at insertion, where maxSpeed = MIN(speedLimit * speedFactor, vTypeMaxSpeed);
≥0: The vehicle is tried to be inserted using the given speed. If that speed is unsafe, departure is delayed.
random": A random speed between 0 and maxSpeed is used, the speed may be adapted to ensure a safe distance to the leader vehicle.
max": The maxSpeed is used, the speed may be adapted to ensure a safe distance to the leader vehicle.
desired": The maxSpeed is used. If that speed is unsafe, departure is delayed.
speedLimit": The speed limit of the lane is used. If that speed is unsafe, departure is delayed.
Determines the edge along the vehicles route where the vehicle enters the network (By default this is 0: the first edge).
- integer index
<routeLength: The vehicle is inserted at the given index
random": A random index along the route is usedd. If that speed is unsafe, departure is delayed.
departEdge is ignored if the vehicle or flow does not use attribute
route and does not define the child element
Determines the speed at which the vehicle should end its route;
current": the vehicle will not change it's lane when nearing arrival. It will use whatever lane is more convenient to reach its arrival position. (default behavior)
≥0: the vehicle changes lanes to end it's route on the specified lane
Determines the position along the destination edge where the vehicle is considered to have arrived;
max": the vehicle will drive up to the end of its final lane. (default behavior)
<FLOAT>: the position on the lane, starting at the lane's begin; Negative values count from the end of the lane
random": a random position is chosen at departure; If vehicle is rerouted a new random position is selected.
Determines the speed at which the vehicle should end its route;
current": the vehicle will not modify it's speed when nearing arrival. It will drive as fast as (safely) possible. (default behavior)
≥0: the vehicle approaches it's arrival position to end with the specified speed
A vehicle is defined using the
vType-element as shown below:
<routes> <vType id="type1" accel="2.6" decel="4.5" sigma="0.5" length="5" maxSpeed="70"/> </routes>
Having defined this, one can build vehicles of type "type1". The values used above are the ones most of the examples use. They resemble a standard vehicle as used within the Stefan Krauß' thesis.
<routes> <vType id="type1" accel="2.6" decel="4.5" sigma="0.5" length="5" maxSpeed="70"/> <vehicle id="veh1" type="type1" depart="0"> <route edges="edge1 edge2 edge3"/> </vehicle> </routes>
This definition is the initial one which includes both, the definition of the vehicle's "purely physical" parameters, such as its length, its color, or its maximum velocity, and also the used car-following model's parameters. Please note that even though the car-following parameters are describing values such as max. acceleration, or max. deceleration, they mostly do not correspond to what one would assume. The maximum acceleration for example is not the car's maximum acceleration possibility but rather the maximum acceleration a driver choses - even if you have a Jaguar, you probably are not trying to go to 100km/h in 5s when driving through a city.
The default car following model is based on the work of Krauß but other
models can be selected as well. Model selection and parameterization is
done by setting further
vType-attributes as shown below. The models and their
parameters are described in the following.
<routes> <vType id="type1" length="5" maxSpeed="70" carFollowModel="Krauss" accel="2.6" decel="4.5" sigma="0.5"/> </routes>
Available vType Attributes#
These values have the following meanings:
|Attribute Name||Value Type||Default||Description|
|id||id (string)||-||The name of the vehicle type|
|accel||float||2.6||The acceleration ability of vehicles of this type (in m/s^2)|
|decel||float||4.5||The deceleration ability of vehicles of this type (in m/s^2)|
||The apparent deceleration of the vehicle as used by the standard model (in m/s^2). The follower uses this value as expected maximal deceleration of the leader.|
||The maximal physically possible deceleration for the vehicle (in m/s^2).|
|sigma||float||0.5||Car-following model parameter, see below|
|tau||float||1.0||Car-following model parameter, see below|
|length||float||5.0||The vehicle's netto-length (length) (in m)|
|minGap||float||2.5||Empty space after leader [m]|
|maxSpeed||float||55.55 (200 km/h) for vehicles, 1.39 (5 km/h) for pedestrians||The vehicle's maximum velocity (in m/s)|
|speedFactor||float||1.0||The vehicles expected multiplicator for lane speed limits|
|speedDev||float||0.1||The deviation of the speedFactor; see below for details (some vClasses use a different default)|
|color||RGB-color||"1,1,0" (yellow)||This vehicle type's color|
|vClass||class (enum)||"passenger"||An abstract vehicle class (see below). By default vehicles represent regular passenger cars.|
|emissionClass||emission class (enum)||"PC_G_EU4"||An emission class (see below). By default a gasoline passenger car conforming to emission standard EURO 4 is used.|
|guiShape||shape (enum)||"unknown"||a vehicle shape for drawing. By default a standard passenger car body is drawn.|
|width||float||1.8||The vehicle's width [m] (used only for visualization with the default model, affects sublane model)|
|height||float||1.5||The vehicle's height [m]|
|collisionMinGapFactor||float||depends on carFollowModel (1.0 for most models)||The minimum fraction of minGap that must be maintained to the leader vehicle to avoid a collision event|
|imgFile||filename (string)||""||Image file for rendering vehicles of this type (should be grayscale to allow functional coloring)|
|osgFile||filename (string)||""||Object file for rendering with OpenSceneGraph (any of the file types supported by the available OSG-plugins)|
|laneChangeModel||lane changing model name (string)||'LC2013'||The model used for changing lanes|
|carFollowModel||car following model name (string)||'Krauss'||The model used for car following|
|personCapacity||int||4||The number of persons (excluding an autonomous driver) the vehicle can transport.|
|containerCapacity||int||0||The number of containers the vehicle can transport.|
|boardingDuration||float||0.5||The time required by a person to board the vehicle.|
|loadingDuration||float||90.0||The time required to load a container onto the vehicle.|
|latAlignment||string||center||The preferred lateral alignment when using the sublane-model. One of (left, right, center, compact, nice, arbitrary).|
|minGapLat||float||0.6||The desired minimum lateral gap when using the sublane-model|
|maxSpeedLat||float||1.0||The maximum lateral speed when using the sublane-model|
|actionStepLength||float||global default (defaults to the simulation step, configurable via --default.action-step-length)||The interval length for which vehicle performs its decision logic (acceleration and lane-changing). The given value is processed to the closest (if possible smaller) positive multiple of the simulation step length. See actionStepLength details|
Besides values which describe the vehicle's car-following properties, one can find definitions of the assigned vehicles' shapes, emissions, and assignment to abstract vehicle classes. These concepts will be described in the following. Also, you may find further descriptions of implemented car-following models in the subsection #Car-Following Models.
The desired driving speed usually varies among the vehicle of a fleet. In SUMO this is modeled by a speed distribution using the attributes speedFactor or speedDev. as explained below.
Since version 1.0.0 speed distributions are used by default (speedDev="0.1"). In older version, speed distributions had to be defined for every vehicle type to avoid homogeneous speeds (and consequently invalid driving behavior because vehicles would never catch up with their leader vehicle)
Vehicle class specific defaults#
When defining a vehicle type with a vClass, the following default speed-deviation will be used.
- passenger (default vClass): 0.1
- pedestrian: 0.1
- bicycle: 0.1
- truck, trailer, coach, delivery, taxi: 0.05
- tram, rail_urban, rail, rail_electric, rail_fast: 0
- emergency: 0
- everything else: 0.1
Instead of configuring speed distributions in a
<vType> definition (as
explained below), the sumo-option --default.speeddev <FLOAT> can be used to set
a global default. Seeting this value to 0 restores pre-1.0.0 behavior.
Defining speed limit violations explicitly#
Each vehicle has an individual speed factor which is multiplied with the speed limit (edge speed) to determine the desired driving speed (default 1.0). A vehicle with speed factor 1.2 drives up to 20% above the speed limit whereas a vehicle with speed factor 0.8 would always stay below the speed limit by 20%. By setting attributes speedFactor and speedDev as show below this individual speed factor for all vehicles of a type can be set to a fixed value.
<vType id="example" speedFactor="1.2" speedDev="0"
Defining a normal distribution for vehicle speeds#
The desired driving speed usually varies among the vehicle of a fleet. While this could be modeled by defining a new type for each vehicle and assigning a distinct speed factor for each type (as above) this would be quite cumbersome. Instead the attribute speedFactor can also be used to sample a vehicle specific speed factor from a normal distribution. The parameter can be given as "norm(mean, dev)" or "normc(mean, dev, min, max)". Using speedFactor="normc(1,0.1,0.2,2)" will result in a speed distribution where 95% of the vehicles drive between 80% and 120% of the legal speed limit. For flows, every inserted vehicle will draw an individual chosen speed multiplier as well. The resulting values in this example are capped at 20% of speedFactor at the low end to prevent extreme dawdling and at twice the recommended speed. A vehicle keeps its chosen speed multiplier for the whole simulation and multiplies it with edge speeds to compute the actual speed for driving on this edge. Thus vehicles can exceed edge speeds. However, vehicle speeds are still capped at the vehicle type's maxSpeed.
In order to use mean values below 0.2 or above 2.0, the 4-parameter version must be used to modify the cut-off parameters as well.
Defining a normal distribution (old style)#
An alternative way to specify speed distributions is to use numerical values for speedFactor and speedDev. In this case speedFactor defines the expected value and speedDev defines the deviation. When using this style, capping cannot be controlled and will always default to 20% and 200%. Thus the above example can also be defined as speedFactor="1" speedDev="0.1".
Different distributions for cars and trucks#
The center of the speed distribution is defined relative to the road speed limit. On some roads, different speed limits may apply to cars and trucks. To model this, vClass-specific speed limits may be defined either in the network or directly in an additional file:
Note, that the given type id refers to an edge type rather than a vehicle type. The edge type may be set to an arbitrary value in the network file.
<type id="a" priority="3" numLanes="3" speed="38.89"/> <restriction vClass="truck" speed="27.89"/> </type>
Additional remarks on speed distributions#
When used for pedestrians, the speedFactor attribute is applied directly to the maximum speed of the vType since speed limits are not applicable to pedestrians
If the specified departSpeed of a vehicle exceeds the speed limit and it's vType has a speedFactor deviation > 0, the indivial chosen speed multiplier is at least high enough to accommodate the stated depart speed.
Due to the work on car following models, we decided to use two values
for vehicle length. The
describes the length of the vehicle itself. Additionally, the
minGap-attribute describes the offset to the
leading vehicle when standing in a jam.
This is illustrated in the following image:
Within the simulation, each vehicle needs - when ignoring the safe gap -
length of the road should be marked
as being occupied.
Abstract Vehicle Class#
A SUMO vehicle may be assigned to an "abstract vehicle class", defined
by using the attribute
vClass. These classes
are used in lane definitions and allow/disallow the usage of lanes for
certain vehicle types. One may think of having a road with three lanes,
where the rightmost may only be used by "taxis" or "buses". The default
vehicle class is passenger (denoting normal passenger cars).
Routing or insertion may fail due to a mismatch between a vehicles
vClass and the road permissions. This can be diagnosed in sumo-gui buy highlighting edges according to their permissions.
The following vehicle classes exist:
|ignoring||- (all bits set to 0)||may drive on all lanes regardless of set permissions.|
|pedestrian||5||lanes which only allow this class are considered to be 'sidewalks' in netconvert|
|passenger||6||This is the default vehicle class and denotes regular passenger traffic|
|bus||9||urban line traffic|
|delivery||11||Allowed on service roads that are not meant for public traffic|
|trailer||13||truck with trailer|
|moped||15||motorized 2-wheeler which may not drive on motorways|
|evehicle||17||future mobility concepts such as electric vehicles which may get special access rights|
|rail_urban||19||heavier than 'tram' but distinct from 'rail'. Encompasses Light Rail and S-Bahn|
|rail_electric||21||heavy rail vehicle that may only drive on electrified tracks|
|ship||23||basic class for navigating waterways|
|custom1||24||reserved for user-defined semantics|
|custom2||25||reserved for user-defined semantics|
These values are a "best guess" of somehow meaningful values, surely worth to be discussed. Though, in parts, they represent classes found in imported formats. They are "abstract" in the means that they are just names only, one could build a .5m long bus.
vClass values are mainly used for determining access restrictions for lanes and edges. Since version 0.21.0 they will also affect the defaults of some other
vType parameters. These defaults are documented at Vehicle_Type_Parameter_Defaults.
The following vehicle deprecated classes exist for maintaining backward compatibility:
||deprecated. use 'emergency'|
||deprecated, use 'authority'|
||deprecated, use 'army'|
||deprecated, use 'bus'|
||deprecated, use 'truck'|
||deprecated, use 'tram'|
||deprecated, use 'rail_urban'|
||deprecated, use 'rail'|
Vehicle Emission Classes#
The emission class represents a certain emission class. It is defined
emissionClass attribute. Possible
values are given in Models/Emissions and
For a nicer visualization of the traffic, the appearance of a vehicle
type's vehicles may be changed by assigning them a certain shape using
guiShape attribute. These shapes are
used when setting the drawing mode for vehicles to simple shapes.
The following shapes are known:
- "bus/flexible" (8.25)
- "bus/overland" (8.25)
- "rail" (24.5)
- "rail/light" (16.85)
- "rail/city" (5.71)
- "rail/slow" (9.44)
- "rail/fast" (24.775)
- "rail/cargo" (13.86)
Some of these classes are drawn as a sequence of carriages. The length
of a single carriage is indicated in parentheses after the type. For
these types, the length of the vehicleType is used as the overall length
of the train (all carriages combined). For example, a vehicle with shape
rail/cargo and length 70m will have 5
carriages. The number of carriages will always be a whole number and no
carriage will be shorter than the length given in brackets but may be
longer to meet the length requirements of the whole vehicle. When
drawing vehicles with raster images, the image will be repeated for each
In addition, one can determine the width of the vehicle using the
width. When using shapes, one
should consider that different vehicle classes (passenger vehicles or
buses) have different lengths. Passenger vehicles with more than 10m
length look quite odd, buses with 2m length, too.
Not all of these named shapes are implemented.
Further parameters can be used to achieve visualization of individual rail carriages
<vType id="rail"> <param key="carriageLength" value="20"/> <param key="carriageGap" value="1"/> <param key="locomotiveLength" value="25"/> </vType>
The car-following models currently implemented in SUMO are given in the following table.
|Element Name (deprecated)||Attribute Value (when declaring as attribute)||Description|
|carFollowing-Krauss||Krauss||The Krauß-model with some modifications which is the default model used in SUMO|
|carFollowing-KraussOrig1||KraussOrig1||The original Krauß-model|
|carFollowing-PWagner2009||PWagner2009||A model by Peter Wagner, using Todosiev's action points|
|carFollowing-BKerner||BKerner||A model by Boris Kerner
Caution: currently under work
|carFollowing-IDM||IDM||The Intelligent Driver Model by Martin Treiber
Caution: Default parameters result in very conservative lane changing gap acceptance
|carFollowing-IDMM||IDMM||Variant of IDMM
Caution: lacking documentation
|carFollowing-KraussPS||KraussPS||the default Krauss model with consideration of road slope|
|carFollowing-KraussAB||KraussAB||the default Krauss model with bounded acceleration (only relevant when using PHEM classes)|
|carFollowing-SmartSK||SmartSK||Variant of the default Krauss model
Caution: lacking documentation
|carFollowing-Wiedemann||Wiedemann||Car following model by Wiedemann (2-Parameters)|
|carFollowing-W99||W99||Car following model by Wiedemann, 10-Parameter version|
|carFollowing-Daniel1||Daniel1||Car following model by Daniel Krajzewicz
Caution: lacking documentation
|carFollowing-ACC||ACC||Car following model by Milanés V. and Shladover S.E.|
|carFollowing-CACC||CACC||Car following model by Milanés V. and Shladover S.E.|
|carFollowing-Rail||Rail||Model for various train types|
Car-Following Model Parameters#
Mostly, each model uses its own set of parameters. The following table lists which parameter are used by which model(s). Details on car-following models and their parameters can be found here.
|minGap||vClass-specific||>= 0||Minimum Gap when standing (m)||all models|
|accel||vClass-specific||>= 0||The acceleration ability of vehicles of this type (in m/s^2)||Krauss, SKOrig, PW2009, Kerner, IDM, ACC, CACC|
|decel||vClass-specific||>= 0||The deceleration ability of vehicles of this type (in m/s^2)||Krauss, SKOrig, PW2009, Kerner, IDM, ACC, CACC|
|emergencyDecel||vClass-specific||>= decel||The maximum deceleration ability of vehicles of this type in case of emergency (in m/s^2)||Krauss, SKOrig, PW2009, Kerner, IDM, ACC, CACC|
|sigma||0.5||[0,1]||The driver imperfection (0 denotes perfect driving||Krauss, SKOrig, PW2009, Kerner, IDM, ACC, CACC|
|tau||1||>= 0||The driver's desired (minimum) time headway. Exact interpretation varies by model. For the default model Krauss this is based on the net space between leader back and follower front). For limitations, see Car-Following-Models#tau).||all Models|
|stepping||0.25||>= 0||the internal step length (in s) when computing follow speed||IDM|
|adaptFactor||1.8||>= 0||the factor for taking into account past level of service||IDMM|
|adaptTime||600||>= 0||the time interval (in s) for relaxing past level of service||IDMM|
|security||desire for security||Wiedemann|
|estimation||accuracy of situation estimation||Wiedemann|
|speedControlGain||-0.4||The control gain determining the rate of speed deviation (Speed control mode)||ACC|
|gapClosingControlGainSpeed||0.8||The control gain determining the rate of speed deviation (Gap closing control mode)||ACC|
|gapClosingControlGainSpace||0.04||The control gain determining the rate of positioning deviation (Gap closing control mode)||ACC|
|gapControlGainSpeed||0.07||The control gain determining the rate of speed deviation (Gap control mode)||ACC|
|gapControlGainSpace||0.23||The control gain determining the rate of positioning deviation (Gap control mode)||ACC|
|collisionAvoidanceGainSpace||0.8||The control gain determining the rate of positioning deviation (Collision avoidance mode)||ACC|
|collisionAvoidanceGainSpeed||0.23||The control gain determining the rate of speed deviation (Collision avoidance mode)||ACC|
|speedControlGainCACC||-0.4||The control gain determining the rate of speed deviation (Speed control mode)||CACC|
|gapClosingControlGainGap||0.005||The control gain determining the rate of positioning deviation (Gap closing control mode)||CACC|
|gapClosingControlGainGapDot||0.05||The control gain determining the rate of the positioning deviation derivative (Gap closing control mode)||CACC|
|gapControlGainGap||0.45||The control gain determining the rate of positioning deviation (Gap control mode)||CACC|
|gapControlGainGapDot||0.0125||The control gain determining the rate of the positioning deviation derivative (Gap control mode)||CACC|
|collisionAvoidanceGainGap||0.45||The control gain determining the rate of positioning deviation (Collision avoidance mode)||CACC|
|collisionAvoidanceGainGapDot||0.05||The control gain determining the rate of the positioning deviation derivative (Collision avoidance mode)||CACC|
|CC1||Spacing Time - s||W99|
|CC2||Following Variation - m||W99|
|CC3||Threshold for Entering "Following" - s||W99|
|CC4||Negative "Following" Threshold - m/s||W99|
|CC5||Positive "Following" Threshold - m/s||W99|
|CC6||Speed Dependency of Oscillation - 10^-4 rad/s||W99|
|CC7||Oscillation Acceleration - m/s^2||W99|
|CC8||Standstill Acceleration - m/s^2||W99|
|CC9||Acceleration at 80km/h - m/s^2||W99|
|trainType||string id for pre-defined train type||Rail|
To select a car following model the following syntax should be used:
<vType id="idmAlternative" length="5" minGap="2" carFollowModel="IDM" tau="1.0" .../>
Default Krauss Model Description#
The default model is a modification of the model defined by Stefan Krauß in Microscopic Modeling of Traffic Flow: Investigation of Collision Free Vehicle Dynamics. The implemented model follows the same idea as that of Krauß, namely: Let vehicles drive as fast as possibly while maintaining perfect safety (always being able to avoid a collision if the leader starts braking within leader and follower maximum acceleration bounds). The implemented model as in <SUMO_HOME>/src/microsim/cfmodels/MSCFModel_Krauss.cpp has the following differences:
- Different deceleration capabilities among the vehicles are handled without violating safety (the original model allowed for collisions in this case)
- The formula for safe velocity was adapted to maintain safety when using the Euler-position update rule. This was done by discretizing some of the continuous terms. The original model was defined for the Ballistic-position updated rule and would produce collisions when using Euler. See also Simulation/Basic_Definition#Defining_the_Integration_Method.
The lane-changing models currently implemented in SUMO are given in the following table.
|LC2013||The default car following model, developed by Jakob Erdmann based on DK2008 (see SUMO’s Lane-Changing Model). This is the default model.|
|SL2015||Lane-changing model for sublane-simulation (used by default when setting option --lateral-resolution <FLOAT>). This model can only be used with the sublane-extension.
Caution: This model may technically be used without activating sublane-simulation but this usage has not been fully tested and may not work as expected.
|DK2008||The original lane-changing model of sumo until version 0.18.0, developed by Daniel Krajzewicz (see Traffic Simulation with SUMO – Simulation of Urban Mobility).|
Mostly, each model uses its own set of parameters. The following table lists which parameter are used by which model(s).
|lcStrategic||The eagerness for performing strategic lane changing. Higher values result in earlier lane-changing. default: 1.0, range [0-inf[||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcCooperative||The willingness for performing cooperative lane changing. Lower values result in reduced cooperation. default: 1.0, range [0-1]||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcSpeedGain||The eagerness for performing lane changing to gain speed. Higher values result in more lane-changing. default: 1.0, range [0-inf[||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcKeepRight||The eagerness for following the obligation to keep right. Higher values result in earlier lane-changing. default: 1.0, range [0-inf[||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcOvertakeRight||The probability for violating rules gainst overtaking on the right default: 0, range [0-1[||LC2013|
|lcOpposite||The eagerness for overtaking through the opposite-direction lane. Higher values result in more lane-changing. default: 1.0, range [0-inf[||LC2013|
|lcLookaheadLeft||Factor for configuring the strategic lookahead distance when a change to the left is necessary (relative to right lookahead). default: 2.0, range ]0-inf[||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcSpeedGainRight||Factor for configuring the threshold asymmetry when changing to the left or to the right for speed gain. By default the decision for changing to the right takes more deliberation. Symmetry is achieved when set to 1.0. default: 0.1, range ]0-inf[||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcSpeedGainLookahead||Lookahead time in seconds for anticipating slow down. default: 0, range [0-inf[||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcCooperativeRoundabout||Factor that increases willingness to move to the inside lane in a multi-lane roundabout. default: lcCooperative, range ]0-1[||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcCooperativeSpeed||Factor for cooperative speed adjustments. default: lcCooperative, range [0-1]||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcSublane||The eagerness for using the configured lateral alignment within the lane. Higher values result in increased willingness to sacrifice speed for alignment. default: 1.0, range [0-inf]||SL2015|
|lcPushy||Willingness to encroach laterally on other drivers. ''default: 0, range 0 to 1||SL2015|
|lcPushyGap||Minimum lateral gap when encroaching laterally on other drives (alternative way to define lcPushy). ''default: minGapLat, range 0 to minGapLat||SL2015|
|lcAssertive||Willingness to accept lower front and rear gaps on the target lane. The required gap is divided by this value. ''default: 1, range: positive reals||LC2013,SL2015|
|lcImpatience||dynamic factor for modifying lcAssertive and lcPushy. default: 0 (no effect) range -1 to 1. Impatience acts as a multiplier. At -1 the multiplier is 0.5 and at 1 the multiplier is 1.5.||SL2015|
|lcTimeToImpatience||Time to reach maximum impatience (of 1). Impatience grows whenever a lane-change manoeuvre is blocked.. default: infinity (disables impatience growth)||SL2015|
|lcAccelLat||maximum lateral acceleration per second. default: 1.0||SL2015|
|lcTurnAlignmentDistance||Distance to an upcoming turn on the vehicles route, below which the alignment should be dynamically adapted to match the turn direction. default: 0.0 (i.e., disabled)||SL2015|
|lcMaxSpeedLatStanding||Upper bound on lateral speed when standing. default: maxSpeedLat (i.e., disabled)||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcMaxSpeedLatFactor||Upper bound on lateral speed while moving computed as lcMaxSpeedLatStanding + lcMaxSpeedLatFactor * getSpeed(). default: 1.0||LC2013, SL2015|
|lcLaneDiscipline||Reluctance to perform speedGain-changes that would place the vehicle across a lane boundary. default: 0.0||SL2015|
|lcSigma||Lateral positioning-imperfection. default: 0.0||LC2013, SL2015|
The parameters are set within the
<vType id="myType" lcStrategic="0.5" lcCooperative="0.0"/>
parameter 'lcMaxSpeedLatStanding' will not be applied when a vehicle is at the end of its lane (to ensure that there are no deadlocks).
Junction Model Parameters#
The behavior at intersections may be configured with the parameters listed below.
|jmCrossingGap||float >= 0 (m)||10||Minimum distance to pedestrians that are walking towards the conflict point with the ego vehicle. If the pedestrians are further away the vehicle may drive across the pedestrian crossing.|
|jmIgnoreKeepClearTime||float (s)||-1||The accumulated waiting time (see Option --waiting-time-memory) after which a vehicle will drive onto an intersection even though this might cause jamming. For negative values, the vehicle will always try to keep the junction clear.|
|jmDriveAfterRedTime||float (s)||-1||This value causes vehicles to violate a red light if the duration of the red phase is lower than the given threshold. When set to 0, vehicles will always drive at yellow but will try to brake at red. If this behavior causes a vehicle to drive so fast that stopping is not possible any more it will not attempt to stop. This value also applies to the default pedestrian model.|
|jmDriveAfterYellowTime||float (s)||-1||This value causes vehicles to violate a yellow light if the duration of the yellow phase is lower than the given threshold. Vehicles that are too fast to brake always drive at yellow..|
|jmDriveRedSpeed||float (m/s)||maxSpeed||This value causes vehicles affected by jmDriveAfterRedTime to slow down when violating a red light. The given speed will not be exceeded when entering the intersection.|
|jmIgnoreFoeProb||float||0||This value causes vehicles to ignore foe vehicles that have right-of-way with the given probability. The check is performed anew every simulation step. (range [0,1]).|
|jmIgnoreFoeSpeed||float (m/s)||0||This value is used in conjunction with jmIgnoreFoeProb. Only vehicles with a speed below or equal to the given value may be ignored.|
|jmSigmaMinor||float, scaling factor (like sigma)||sigma||This value configures driving imperfection (dawdling) while passing a minor link (ahead of the intersection after having comitted to drive and while still on the intersection).|
|jmStoplineGap||float >= 0 (m)||1||This value configures stopping distance in front of prioritary / TL-controlled stop line. In case the stop line has been relocated by a stopOffset item, the maximum of both distances is applied.|
|jmTimegapMinor||float s||1||This value defines the minimum time gap when passing ahead of a prioritized vehicle.|
|impatience||float or 'off'||0.0||Willingess of drivers to impede vehicles with higher priority. See below for semantics.|
The parameters are set within the
<vType id="ambulance" jmDriveAfterRedTime="300" jmDriveAfterRedSpeed="5.56"/>
The impatience of a driver is value between 0 and 1 that grows whenever the driver has to stop unintentionally (i.e. due to a jam or waiting at an intersection). The impatience value is computed as
MAX(0, MIN(1.0, baseImpatience + waitingTime / timeToMaxImpatience))
Where baseImpatience is configured by setting the vType-attribute impatience and timeToMaxImpatience is set using the option --time-to-impatience (default 300s). Setting this option to 0 disables impatience growth. The value of baseImpatience may be negative to slow the growth of the dynamically computed impatience. It may also be defined with the value off to prevent drivers from becoming impatient.
The impatience value is used to represent a drivers willingness to impede vehicles with higher priority. At a value of 1 or above, the driver will use any gap that is safe in the sense of collision-avoidance even if it means that another vehicle has to brake as hard as it can. At a value of 0, the driver will only perform maneuvers that do not force other vehicles to slow down. Intermediate values interpolate smoothly between these extremes.
Default Vehicle Type#
type attribute of a vehicle is not
defined it defaults to
By defining a vehicle type with this id (
<vType id="DEFAULT_VEHTYPE" ..../>) the default parameters for
vehicles without an explicititly defined type can be changed. The change
of the default vehicle type needs to occur before any reference to the
type was made, so basically before any vehicle or vehicle type was
defined. So it should always be at the top of the very first route file.
Route and vehicle type distributions#
Instead of defining routes and vTypes explicitly for a vehicle sumo can choose them at runtime from a given distribution. In order to use this feature just define distributions as following:
Vehicle Type Distributions#
<routes> <vTypeDistribution id="typedist1"> <vType id="type1" accel="0.8" length="5" maxSpeed="70" probability="0.9"/> <vType id="type2" accel="1.8" length="15" maxSpeed="50" probability="0.1"/> </vTypeDistribution> </routes>
The python tool createVehTypeDistributions.py can be used to generate large distributions that vary multiple vType parameters independently of each other.
Using existing types#
<routes> <vType id="type1" accel="0.8" length="5" maxSpeed="70" probability="0.9"/> <vType id="type2" accel="1.8" length="15" maxSpeed="50" probability="0.1"/> <vTypeDistribution id="typedist1" vTypes="type1 type2"/> </routes>
<routes> <routeDistribution id="routedist1"> <route id="route0" color="1,1,0" edges="beg middle end rend" probability="0.9"/> <route id="route1" color="1,2,0" edges="beg middle end" probability="0.1"/> </routeDistribution> </routes>
A distribution has only an id as (mandatory) attribute and needs a probability attribute for each of its child elements. The sum of the probability values needs not to be 1, they are scaled accordingly. Note, that probability defaults to 1.00 when not specified. At the moment the id for the children is mandatory, this is likely to change in future versions.
A distribution can be used just as using individual types and routes:
<routes> <vehicle id="0" type="typedist1" route="routedist1" depart="0" color="1,0,0"/> </routes>
When using duarouter with input files containing distributions, the output files will contain a fixed route and type for each vehicle and the distributions will be gone. This is to ensure that the each vehicles route will fit its sampled
vClass when using the input files with sumo
Vehicles may be forced to stop for a defined time span or wait for persons by using the stop element either as part of a route or a vehicle definition as following:
<routes> <route id="route0" edges="beg middle end rend"> <stop lane="middle_0" endPos="50" duration="20"/> </route> <vehicle id="v0" route="route0" depart="0"> <stop lane="end_0" endPos="10" until="50"/> </vehicle> </routes>
The resulting vehicle will stop twice, once at lane middle_0 because of the stop defined in its route and the second time because of the stop defined in the vehicle itself. The first stop will last 20 seconds the second one until simulation second 50. For a detailed list of attributes to stops see below. For a description on how to use them to simulate public transport see Simulation/Public Transport.
Stops can be childs of vehicles, routes, persons or containers.
|busStop||string||valid busStop ids||-||if given, containerStop, chargingStation, edge, lane, startPos and endPos are not allowed|
|containerStop||string||valid containerStop ids||-||if given, busStop, chargingStation, edge, lane, startPos and endPos are not allowed|
|chargingStation||string||valid chargingStation ids||-||if given, busStop, containerStop, edge, lane, startPos and endPos are not allowed|
|lane||string||lane id||-||the lane id takes the form <edge_id>_<lane_index>. the edge has to be part of the corresponding route|
|endPos||float(m)||-lane.length < x < lane.length (negative values count backwards from the end of the lane)||lane.length|
|startPos||float(m)||-lane.length < x < lane.length (negative values count backwards from the end of the lane)||endPos-0.2m||there must be a difference of more than 0.1m between startPos and endPos|
|friendlyPos||bool||true,false||false||whether invalid stop positions should be corrected automatically|
|duration||float(s)||≥0||-||minimum duration for stopping|
|until||float(s)||≥0||-||the time step at which the route continues|
|arrival||float(s)||≥0||-||the expected time of arrival for the stop. If this value is set, stop-output will include the attribute ''arrivalDelay''.|
|extension||float(s)||≥0||-||the maximum time by which to extend the stop duration due to boarding persons and when waiting for expected persons / triggered stopping|
|index||int, "end", "fit"||0≤index≤number of stops in the route||"end"||where to insert the stop in the vehicle's list of stops|
|triggered||bool||true,false||false||whether a person may end the stop|
|expected||string||list of person IDs||list of persons that must board the vehicle before it may continue (only takes effect for triggered stops)|
|expectedContainers||string||list of container IDs||list of containers that must be loaded onto the vehicle before it may continue (only takes effect for triggered stops)|
|parking||bool||true,false||value of triggered||whether the vehicle stops on the road or beside|
|actType||string||arbitrary||'waiting'||activity displayed for stopped person in GUI and output files (only applies to person simulation)|
|tripId||string||arbitrary||parameter to be applied to the vehicle to track the trip id within a cyclical public transport route|
|line||string||arbitrary||new line attribute to be set on the vehicle when reaching this stop (for cyclical public transport route)|
|speed||float||positive||-||speed to be kept while driving between startPos and endPos. This turns the stop into a waypoint.|
- If "duration" and "until" are given, the vehicle will stop for at least "duration" seconds.
- If "duration" is 0 the vehicle will decelerate to reach velocity 0 and then start to accelerate again.
- If "until" is given and "duration" is not and the vehicle arrives at the stop at or after the time step defined by "until" it will decelerate to speed 0 and then accelerate again.
- If persons board the vehicle, the stop is extended by the "boardingDuration" of the vehicle or until the "personCapacity" is reached. (or "loadingDuration" and "containerCapacity" for containers).
- If until is defined in the context of a repeated vehicle insertion (flow) it will be incremented by the difference of vehicle creation time and "begin" of the flow.
- If neither "duration" nor "until" are given, "triggered" defaults to true. If "triggered" is set to false explicitly the vehicle will stop forever.
- if "duration" or "until" are given along with "triggered", then the vehicle will stop until the given duration/until is reached and a person has boarded
- If "parking" is set to true. The vehicle stops besides the road without blocking other vehicles.
If triggered is true then parking will also be set to true by default. If you then set parking to false you may create deadlocks which prevent the simulation from terminating
Bus stops must have a length of at least 10
startPos and endPos#
- by default vehicles will try to stop at the given endPos
- if the vehicle comes to a halt earlier (i.e. due to a jam) then the stop counts as reached if the vehicle front is between startPos and endPos
- if the vehicle picks up a person or container, it can do so as long as the person is between startPos and endPos
- if the stop uses attribute 'speed', than that speed will be maintained between startPos and endPos
By defining attribute 'speed' with a positive value, the stop definition is turned into a waypoint. The vehicle will drive past the given lane and keep the defined speed while between startPos end endPos. The 'duration' and 'until' values are ignored.
A color is defined as red,green,blue or red,green,blue,alpha either in a vehicle, route or vType.
<route id="r0" color="0,255,255"/> <type id="t0" color="0,0,255"/> <vehicle id="v0" color="255,0,0,0"/>
In the default visualization settings the vehicle color will be used if define, otherwise the type and finally the route color. These settings can be changed.
By default color components should be given as integers in the range of (0,255) but other definitions are also supported:
color="0.5, 0.5, 1.0" color="#FF0000" color="red"
The transparency value (alpha) only takes effect when also using the vType attribute imgFile.
Vehicle devices are used to model and configure different aspects such as output (device.fcd) or behavior (device.rerouting).
The following device names are supported and can be used for the
Some devices are assigned automatically. Every
<trip> that is loaded into the
simulation is automatically equipped with a rerouting device to
perform the initial route computation.
Other devices such as fcd are assigned automatically when the option --fcd-output is set.
Assignment by global options#
Devices can be configured globally for all vehicles in the simulation by setting the option --device.<DEVICENAME>.probability (i.e.) --device.fcd.probability 0.25 This will equip about a quarter of the vehicles with an fcd device (each vehicle determines this randomly with 25% probability) To make the assignment exact the additional option --device.<DEVICENAME>.deterministic can be set Another option is to pass the list of vehicle ids that shall be equipped using the option --device.<DEVICENAME>.explicit <ID1,ID2,...IDk>.
These options take precedence over automatic assignment by output-option.
Assignment by generic parameters#
Another option for assigning devices for vehicle types or individual vehicles is by using generic parameters. This is done by defining them for the vehicle or the vehicle type in the following way:
<routes> <vehicle id="v0" route="route0" depart="0"> <param key="has.<DEVICENAME>.device" value="true"/> </vehicle> <vType id="t1"> <param key="has.<DEVICENAME>.device" value="true"/> </vType> <vehicle id="v1" route="route0" depart="0" type="t1"/> </routes>
<param> of a vehicle has precedence over the
<param> of the vehicle's type. Both have precedence over the assignment by options.