SUMO includes the following emission models:
- HBEFA v2.1-based: A continuous reformulation of the HBEFA v2.1 emissions data base (open source);
- HBEFA v3.1-based: A continuous reformulation of the HBEFA v3.1 emissions data base (open source);
- PHEMlight, a derivation of the original PHEM emission model (closed source, commercial).
- Electric Vehicle Model: an electricity-consumption model by Kurczveil, T., López, P.A., Schnieder.
Literature on the Models and their implementation can be found at the DLR electronic library (http://elib.dlr.de/89398/).
All models implement different vehicle emission classes. These classes
can be assigned to vehicles by using the vehicle type attribute
emissionClass. If the model has different classes, the definition
has the form
If the model has only one class (for instance the Electric Vehicle Model),
<class> can be omitted in the input and will show up as
in the output. There is one special model
Zero which does not
generate emissions or energy consumption at all.
Available emission classes
can be found within the emission model descriptions (HBEFA
PHEMlight). The current default
HBEFA3/PC_G_EU4 (a gasoline powered Euro norm 4 passenger car
modeled using the HBEFA3 based model).
Pollutants / Measurements covered by models#
|model||pollutant / measurement|
|CO2||CO||HC||NOx||PMx||fuel consumption||electricity consumption|
|Electric Vehicle Model
- trip information: In combination with the emissions device, the tripinfo output contains the sum of all pollutants emitted / fuel consumed during a vehicle's journey. To record emissions for all trips add the options --tripinfo-output and --device.emissions.probability 1.0. Alternatively, you can configure emission recording for selected vehicles using generic parameters.
- edgelane emissions: These output files contain the pollutants emitted at an edge / a lane, aggregated over a variable time span
- emission-output: Unaggregated emission values for every vehicle and time step
- Color vehicles by emissions: This can be used to show the emissions for each vehicle during each simulation step
- Color lanes/edges by emissions: This can be used to show the emissions for all vehicles on a lane during each simulation step (or for the whole edge in Simulation/Meso).
The tool traceExporter.py converts SUMO's fcd-output into files that can be directly read by the PHEM application. A tutorial on generating trace files (including PHEM input files) using this tool is available.