PHEM (Passenger Car and Heavy Duty Emission Model)#
PHEM (Passenger Car and Heavy Duty Emission Model) is an instantaneous vehicle emission model developed by the TU Graz since 1999. PHEM is based on an extensive European set of vehicle measurements and covers passenger cars, light duty vehicles and heavy duty vehicles from city buses up to 40 ton semi-trailers.
Within COLOMBO, a simplified version of PHEM, embedded into SUMO, was developed. The PHEMlight model is the result of this work. An in-depth description can be found in COLOMBO's deliverable D4.2. The model received a major update to version 184.108.40.206 in the beginning of 2016 which also used new names for all vehicle classes, most notably all classes now have an english prefix distinguishing passenger cars (PC_), light (LCV_) and heavy duty vehicles (HDV_). Since the class ames are disjoint both models can be used alternatively or even in parallel although the old classes are considered deprecated.
PHEMlight uses data files that include the parameters of the modelled emission classes. At the time being, data sets for two emission classes are included in SUMO: PKW_D_EU4 and PKW_G_EU4 (PC_D_EU4 and PC_G_EU4 for the new model), resembling passenger vehicles, Euro Norm 4, powered by Diesel (PKW_D_EU4) and gasoline (PKW_G_EU4).
Only two emission classes are included in the public version. Any further vehicle classes must be licensed from the TU Graz.
To use PHEMlight, you can set an additional search path to these input files using the configuration option --phemlight-path <FILE> where <FILE> is the path. Alternatively, you may set the environment variable PHEMLIGHT_PATH. By default SUMO is only looking into <SUMO_HOME>/data/emissions/PHEMlight
In addition, your vehicles must be assigned to one of PHEMlight's
vehicle emission classes, summarised in the following table. To use the
emission classes below prepend the class name with the PHEMlight prefix,
Explanations for the 2.0 naming conventions#
The name is composed of the vehicle category and size, the technology and the emission standard, all connected with underscores.
Vehicle Category and Size Classes#
light commercial vehicles; differentiation into size classes according to legislation (N1-I, N1-II, N1-III); size class I RM < 1305kg; size class II 1305kg < RM <= 1760kg; size class III 1760kg < RM <= 3500kg; "RM": reference mass (approx. Vehicle curb weight)
heavy duty vehicles - rigid trucks; size class I 2 axle trucks; size class II 3+ axle trucks
heavy duty vehicles - truck + trailer (incl. articulated trucks = tractor + semitrailer)
heavy duty vehicles - city bus
heavy duty vehicles - coach
motorcycles - 2 stroke (not included)
motorcycles - 4 stroke (not included)
moped (not included)
gasoline engine (conventional powertrain)
diesel engine (conventional powertrain)
gasoline engine (parallel hybrid powertrain)
diesel engine (parallel hybrid powertrain)
Compressed Natural Gas engine
battery electric vehicles
passenger car, gasoline engine, EURO 6
passenger car, battery electric
light commercial vehicle, size class III, CNG engine, Euro 6
rigid truck, size class I, diesel engine, EURO IV
city bus, diesel engine, Euro V
Remarks on Hybrid vehicles#
The fleet average "HEV" vehicles in PHEM and PHEMlight do NOT match with single particular vehicles in the market (e.g. Toyota Prius) but have been defined as follows:
- Baseline vehicle setup (e.g. vehicle size) similar than related conventional vehicle
- Total rated vehicle power of baseline conventional vehicle split to combustion engine and to electric motor (EM)
- Additional vehicle weight due to EM and battery considered
- Application of generic parallel hybrid operation strategy (recuperation, boosting, charching etc.)
Also note that plugin hybrids (where the main powertrain is electric) should be modelled as battery vehicles and need to switch their emission class (and thus their vehicle type in SUMO) when running conventional.
The following tables show the available classes. Some classes (especially for motor cycles) were removed in the 2.0 version and some (especially alternative fuels) are only available there.
PHEMlight Emission Classes for Light Vehicles running on Diesel or Gasoline#
PHEMlight Emission Classes for Light Vehicles running on alternative fuels#
PHEMlight Emission Classes for Motor Cycles#
Motor cycles are only available for the old data set (pre 2016)
PHEMlight Emission Classes for Heavy Vehicles#
The special class
zero may be used to specify a vehicle without emissions.