Models/Emissions/PHEMlight

PHEM (Passenger Car and Heavy Duty Emission Model)#

PHEM (Passenger Car and Heavy Duty Emission Model) is an instantaneous vehicle emission model developed by the TU Graz since 1999. PHEM is based on an extensive European set of vehicle measurements and covers passenger cars, light duty vehicles and heavy duty vehicles from city buses up to 40 ton semi-trailers.

Within COLOMBO, a simplified version of PHEM, embedded into SUMO, was developed. The PHEMlight model is the result of this work. An in-depth description can be found in COLOMBO's deliverable D4.2. The model received a major update to version 2.0.0.0 in the beginning of 2016 which also used new names for all vehicle classes, most notably all classes now have an english prefix distinguishing passenger cars (PC_), light (LCV_) and heavy duty vehicles (HDV_). Since the class ames are disjoint both models can be used alternatively or even in parallel although the old classes are considered deprecated.

PHEMlight uses data files that include the parameters of the modelled emission classes. At the time being, data sets for two emission classes are included in SUMO: PKW_D_EU4 and PKW_G_EU4 (PC_D_EU4 and PC_G_EU4 for the new model), resembling passenger vehicles, Euro Norm 4, powered by Diesel (PKW_D_EU4) and gasoline (PKW_G_EU4).

Caution

Only two emission classes are included in the public version. Any further vehicle classes must be licensed from the TU Graz.

To use PHEMlight, you can set an additional search path to these input files using the configuration option --phemlight-path <FILE> where <FILE> is the path. Alternatively, you may set the environment variable PHEMLIGHT_PATH. By default SUMO is only looking into <SUMO_HOME>/data/emissions/PHEMlight

In addition, your vehicles must be assigned to one of PHEMlight's vehicle emission classes, summarised in the following table. To use the emission classes below prepend the class name with the PHEMlight prefix, e.g. emissionClass="PHEMlight/PKW_G_EU4".

Explanations for the 2.0 naming conventions#

The name is composed of the vehicle category and size, the technology and the emission standard, all connected with underscores.

Vehicle Category and Size Classes#

  • PC

    passenger cars

  • LCV

    light commercial vehicles; differentiation into size classes according to legislation (N1-I, N1-II, N1-III); size class I RM < 1305kg; size class II 1305kg < RM <= 1760kg; size class III 1760kg < RM <= 3500kg; "RM": reference mass (approx. Vehicle curb weight)

  • HDV_RT

    heavy duty vehicles - rigid trucks; size class I 2 axle trucks; size class II 3+ axle trucks

  • HDV_TT

    heavy duty vehicles - truck + trailer (incl. articulated trucks = tractor + semitrailer)

  • HDV_CB

    heavy duty vehicles - city bus

  • HDV_CO

    heavy duty vehicles - coach

  • MC_2S

    motorcycles - 2 stroke (not included)

  • MC_4S

    motorcycles - 4 stroke (not included)

  • MOP

    moped (not included)

Technology#

  • G

    gasoline engine (conventional powertrain)

  • D

    diesel engine (conventional powertrain)

  • G_HEV

    gasoline engine (parallel hybrid powertrain)

  • D_HEV

    diesel engine (parallel hybrid powertrain)

  • CNG

    Compressed Natural Gas engine

  • BEV

    battery electric vehicles

Examples#

  • PC_G_EU6

    passenger car, gasoline engine, EURO 6

  • PC_BEV

    passenger car, battery electric

  • LCV_III_CNG_EU6

    light commercial vehicle, size class III, CNG engine, Euro 6

  • HDV_RT_I_D_EU4

    rigid truck, size class I, diesel engine, EURO IV

  • HDV_CB_D_EU5

    city bus, diesel engine, Euro V

Remarks on Hybrid vehicles#

The fleet average "HEV" vehicles in PHEM and PHEMlight do NOT match with single particular vehicles in the market (e.g. Toyota Prius) but have been defined as follows:

  1. Baseline vehicle setup (e.g. vehicle size) similar than related conventional vehicle
  2. Total rated vehicle power of baseline conventional vehicle split to combustion engine and to electric motor (EM)
  3. Additional vehicle weight due to EM and battery considered
  4. Application of generic parallel hybrid operation strategy (recuperation, boosting, charching etc.)

Also note that plugin hybrids (where the main powertrain is electric) should be modelled as battery vehicles and need to switch their emission class (and thus their vehicle type in SUMO) when running conventional.

The following tables show the available classes. Some classes (especially for motor cycles) were removed in the 2.0 version and some (especially alternative fuels) are only available there.

PHEMlight Emission Classes for Light Vehicles running on Diesel or Gasoline#

Passenger CarsLight Duty Vehicles
2.0.0.02.0.0.02.0.0.02.0.0.0
PKW_D_EU0PC_D_EU0LNF_D_EU0_ILCV_I_D_EU0LNF_D_EU0_IILCV_II_D_EU0LNF_D_EU0_IIILCV_III_D_EU0
PKW_D_EU1PC_D_EU1LNF_D_EU1_ILCV_I_D_EU1LNF_D_EU1_IILCV_II_D_EU1LNF_D_EU1_IIILCV_III_D_EU1
PKW_D_EU2PC_D_EU2LNF_D_EU2_ILCV_I_D_EU2LNF_D_EU2_IILCV_II_D_EU2LNF_D_EU2_IIILCV_III_D_EU2
PKW_D_EU3PC_D_EU3LNF_D_EU3_ILCV_I_D_EU3LNF_D_EU3_IILCV_II_D_EU3LNF_D_EU3_IIILCV_III_D_EU3
PKW_D_EU4PC_D_EU4LNF_D_EU4_ILCV_I_D_EU4LNF_D_EU4_IILCV_II_D_EU4LNF_D_EU4_IIILCV_III_D_EU4
PKW_D_EU5PC_D_EU5LNF_D_EU5_ILCV_I_D_EU5LNF_D_EU5_IILCV_II_D_EU5LNF_D_EU5_IIILCV_III_D_EU5
PKW_D_EU6PC_D_EU6LNF_D_EU6_ILCV_I_D_EU6LNF_D_EU6_IILCV_II_D_EU6LNF_D_EU6_IIILCV_III_D_EU6
PC_D_EU6cLCV_I_D_EU6cLCV_II_D_EU6cLCV_III_D_EU6c
PKW_G_EU0PC_G_EU0LNF_G_EU0_ILCV_I_G_EU0LNF_G_EU0_IILCV_II_G_EU0LNF_G_EU0_IIILCV_III_G_EU0
PKW_G_EU1PC_G_EU1LNF_G_EU1_ILCV_I_G_EU1LNF_G_EU1_IILCV_II_G_EU1LNF_G_EU1_IIILCV_III_G_EU1
PKW_G_EU2PC_G_EU2LNF_G_EU2_ILCV_I_G_EU2LNF_G_EU2_IILCV_II_G_EU2LNF_G_EU2_IIILCV_III_G_EU2
PKW_G_EU3PC_G_EU3LNF_G_EU3_ILCV_I_G_EU3LNF_G_EU3_IILCV_II_G_EU3LNF_G_EU3_IIILCV_III_G_EU3
PKW_G_EU4PC_G_EU4LNF_G_EU4_ILCV_I_G_EU4LNF_G_EU4_IILCV_II_G_EU4LNF_G_EU4_IIILCV_III_G_EU4
PKW_G_EU5PC_G_EU5LNF_G_EU5_ILCV_I_G_EU5LNF_G_EU5_IILCV_II_G_EU5LNF_G_EU5_IIILCV_III_G_EU5
PKW_G_EU6PC_G_EU6LNF_G_EU6_ILCV_I_G_EU6LNF_G_EU6_IILCV_II_G_EU6LNF_G_EU6_IIILCV_III_G_EU6
PC_G_EU6cLCV_I_G_EU6cLCV_II_G_EU6cLCV_III_G_EU6c

PHEMlight Emission Classes for Light Vehicles running on alternative fuels#

Passenger CarsLight Duty Vehicles
2.0.0.02.0.0.02.0.0.02.0.0.0
PC_BEVLCV_I_BEVLCV_II_BEVLCV_III_BEV
PC_CNG_EU5LCV_I_CNG_EU5LCV_II_CNG_EU5LCV_III_CNG_EU5
PC_CNG_EU6LCV_I_CNG_EU6LCV_II_CNG_EU6LCV_III_CNG_EU6
PC_CNG_EU6cLCV_I_CNG_EU6cLCV_II_CNG_EU6cLCV_III_CNG_EU6c
H_PKW_D_EU5
H_PKW_D_EU6PC_D_HEV_EU6LCV_I_D_HEV_EU6LCV_II_D_HEV_EU6LCV_III_D_HEV_EU6
PC_D_HEV_EU6cLCV_I_D_HEV_EU6cLCV_II_D_HEV_EU6cLCV_III_D_HEV_EU6c
H_PKW_G_EU5
H_PKW_G_EU6PC_G_HEV_EU6LCV_I_G_HEV_EU6LCV_II_G_HEV_EU6LCV_III_G_HEV_EU6
PC_G_HEV_EU6cLCV_I_G_HEV_EU6cLCV_II_G_HEV_EU6cLCV_III_G_HEV_EU6c

PHEMlight Emission Classes for Motor Cycles#

Motor cycles are only available for the old data set (pre 2016)

Two-Wheelers Motor Cycles
KKR_G_EU0 MR_G_EU0_2T MR_G_EU0_4T
KKR_G_EU1 MR_G_EU1_2T MR_G_EU1_4T
KKR_G_EU2 MR_G_EU2_2T MR_G_EU2_4T
KKR_G_EU3 MR_G_EU3_2T MR_G_EU3_4T
KKR_G_EU4 MR_G_EU4_2T MR_G_EU4_4T
MR_G_EU5_2T MR_G_EU5_4T

PHEMlight Emission Classes for Heavy Vehicles#

Tractor/TrailorCoachUrban and Inter Urban BusesTrucks
2.0.0.02.0.0.02.0.0.02.0.0.02.0.0.0
HDV_CB_BEV
HDV_CB_CNG_EU6
LSZ_D_EU0LSZ_D_EU0RB_D_EU0HDV_CO_D_EU0LB_D_EU0HDV_CB_D_EU0SOLO_LKW_D_EU0_IHDV_RT_I_D_EU0SOLO_LKW_D_EU0_IIHDV_RT_II_D_EU0
LSZ_D_EU1HDV_TT_D_EU1RB_D_EU1HDV_CO_D_EU1LB_D_EU1HDV_CB_D_EU1SOLO_LKW_D_EU1_IHDV_RT_I_D_EU1SOLO_LKW_D_EU1_IIHDV_RT_II_D_EU1
LSZ_D_EU2HDV_TT_D_EU2RB_D_EU2HDV_CO_D_EU2LB_D_EU2HDV_CB_D_EU2SOLO_LKW_D_EU2_IHDV_RT_I_D_EU2SOLO_LKW_D_EU2_IIHDV_RT_II_D_EU2
LSZ_D_EU3HDV_TT_D_EU3RB_D_EU3HDV_CO_D_EU3LB_D_EU3HDV_CB_D_EU3SOLO_LKW_D_EU3_IHDV_RT_I_D_EU3SOLO_LKW_D_EU3_IIHDV_RT_II_D_EU3
LSZ_D_EU4HDV_TT_D_EU4RB_D_EU4HDV_CO_D_EU4LB_D_EU4HDV_CB_D_EU4SOLO_LKW_D_EU4_IHDV_RT_I_D_EU4SOLO_LKW_D_EU4_IIHDV_RT_II_D_EU4
LSZ_D_EU5HDV_TT_D_EU5RB_D_EU5HDV_CO_D_EU5LB_D_EU5HDV_CB_D_EU5SOLO_LKW_D_EU5_IHDV_RT_I_D_EU5SOLO_LKW_D_EU5_IIHDV_RT_II_D_EU5
LSZ_D_EU6HDV_TT_D_EU6RB_D_EU6HDV_CO_D_EU6LB_D_EU6HDV_CB_D_EU6SOLO_LKW_D_EU6_IHDV_RT_I_D_EU6SOLO_LKW_D_EU6_IIHDV_RT_II_D_EU6
HDV_CB_D_HEV_EU6

Special Classes#

The special class zero may be used to specify a vehicle without emissions.

Further Resources#

Seventh Framework Programme COLOMBO project This part of SUMO was developed, reworked, or extended within the project "COLOMBO", co-funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Programme.