Emergency Vehicle Simulation#
The simulation of emergency vehicles and their special rights is possible with SUMO.
Vehicle Class 'emergency'#
If a vehicle is assigned a vType with vClass="emergency", the following features are activated:
- the vehicle will receive the default shape and size for a rescue vehicle.
- the vehicle may drive on lanes that allow "emergency" (but which might disallow normal passenger traffic).
- the vehicle may overtake on the right in all traffic situations.
- the vehicle may drive through the opposite direction edge even when its own edge has multiple usable lanes.
- the vehicle may overtake through the opposite direction edge even when its leader vehicle also wants to change left.
- the vehicle may overtake through the opposite direction edge even when it's approaching an intersection without priority.
- the vehicle may overtake through the opposite direction edge even when it must overtake a long column of vehicles (up to 1000m).
Blue Light Device#
A Blue light device indicates that the emergency vehicle is driving with special rights (using a siren and blue flashing lights). See here for how to define this device for specific vehicle types or individual vehicles. The device activates the following features:
- the vehicle will ignore red traffic lights.
- once the vehicle is jammed (waitingTime > 1s) it will perform lane changing without regard to strategic considerations (it will use any lane that allows it to advance along the road).
- if the vehicle is at an intersection but in the wrong turning lane, it will enter the intersection anyway (performing a silent teleport to the closest internal lane that allows it to continue its route).
If the simulation is running with the sublane model (--lateral-resolution is set to a value > 0), other traffic participants are forced to form a virtual middle lane (rescue lane) to let the emergency vehicle pass. The following behaviors are activated for surrounding traffic ahead of the device-equipped vehicle:
- vehicles on the leftmost lane move towards the left side (latAlignment="left").
- vehicles on all other lanes move towards the right side (latAlignment="right").
- vehicles do not perform any lane changes (in particular, they do not move into the rescue lane).
- after the emergency vehicle has passed, the vehicles resume normal driving (with their previous lateral alignment).
Vehicles that are forming a rescue lane will have generic parameter key
rescueLane set to a space-separated list of emergency vehicle ids that are influencing them.
Surrounding traffic reacts while within 25m of the device-equipped vehicle. This distance is configurable by:
- the SUMO option --device.bluelight.reactiondist, or
- the TraCI command
traci.vehicle.setParameter(vehID, "device.bluelight.reactiondist", str(value))
Further Features for driving with special rights#
- Disregarding right-of-way and traffic lights:
- Exceeding the speed limit: This is supported by setting the vType-attribute speedFactor (a value of 1.5 allows driving with 150% of the road speed limit).
<vType id="rescue" vClass="emergency" speedFactor="1.5"> <param key="has.bluelight.device" value="true"/> </vType>
The following generic parameters can be used to configure a bluelight device:
- "device.bluelight.reactiondist": overrides option --device.bluelight.reactionDist
The following generic parameters can be used to configure surrounding traffic w.r.t their reaction to a bluelight device:
- "device.bluelight.reaction-prob-near": probably for a vehicle to react (per second) and start forming a rescue lane while near (default 0.577)
- "device.bluelight.reaction-prob-far": probably for a vehicle to react (per second) and start forming a rescue lane while far away (default 0.189)
- "device.bluelight.near-dist": distance threshold to distinguish between near and far (for the above probabilities)
The visualization of emergency vehicles is supported in
sumo-gui. When setting the vType-attribute
white vehicle with the international sign for first aid is drawn.
Alternatively, a police car or a fire brigade will be drawn when setting the vType-attribute
guiShape="firebrigade", respectively. Furthermore, a blue flashing light will be visible on the vehicle when setting the vType-attribute
Bieker, Laura (2015) Traffic safety evaluations for Emergency Vehicles. Young Researchers Seminar, 17.-19. June 2015, Rome, Italy.
Bieker, Laura (2011) Emergency Vehicle Prioritization using Vehicle-To-Vehicle Communication. Young Researchers Seminar, 8.-10. June 2011, Copenhagen, Denmark.