Persons

Persons#

A person moves through the net by walking or using vehicles. The walking behavior is customizable by selecting a pedestrian model. A person element has child elements defining stages of its plan. The stages are a connected sequence of ride, walk and stop elements as described below. Each person must have at least one stage in its plan.

<person id="foo" depart="0">
    <walk edges="a b c"/>
    <ride from="c" to="d" lines="busline1"/>
    <ride .../>
    <walk .../>
    <stop .../>
</person>

Availabe Person Attributes#

Attribute Type Range Default Remark
id string valid XML ids -
depart float (s) or human-readable-time or triggered ≥0 or 'triggered' - See ride for an explanation of 'triggered'
departPos float(s) ≥0 - the distance along the departure edge where the person is created
type string any declared vType DEFAULT_PEDTYPE the type should have vClass pedestrian
speedFactor float > 0 1.0 Sets custom speedFactor (factor on desiredMaxSpeed of vType) and overrides the speedFactor distribution of the vType
color RGB-color "1,1,0" (yellow) This person color

Available vType Attributes#

Attribute Type Range Default Remark
width float (s) ≥0 0,48 The person's width [m]
length float (s) ≥0 0,21 The person's netto-length (length) (in m)
mingap float (s) ≥0 0,25 Empty space after leader [m]
maxSpeed float (s) ≥0 10,44 The person's absolute maximum velocity (in m/s)
desiredMaxSpeed float (s) ≥0 1,39 The person's desired maximum velocity (in m/s)
speedFactor float or distribution spec >0 1.0 The persons expected multiplier for desiredMaxSpeed
speedDev float >=0 0.1 The deviation of the speedFactor distribution
color RGB-color "1,1,0" (yellow) This person type's color
jmDriveAfterRedTime float (s) ≥0 -1 This value causes persons to violate a red light if the duration of the red phase is lower than the given threshold. When set to 0, persons will always walk at yellow but will try to stop at red. If this behavior causes a person to walk so fast that stopping is not possible any more it will not attempt to stop.
impatience float or 'off' <= 1 0.0 Willingness of persons to walk across the street at an unprioritized crossing when there are vehicles that would have to brake
vClass class (enum) "pedestrian"

Note

Up to version 1.14.1, speed distributions for walking persons (pedestrians) worked differently from those for vehicles. Whereas the individual speed factor of vehicles is multiplied with the road speed limit to arrive at the desired speed, the individual speed factor of persons was multiplied with the maxSpeed of their vType (since road speed limits do not apply to persons). In later versions, person use desiredMaxSpeed and maxSpeed in the exact same manner as vehicles. For backward compatibility reasons, if maxSpeed is configured and desiredMaxSpeed is not given in the vType, the desiredMaxSpeed is initialied from the given maxSpeed value.

When specifying a type, the set of attributes which are in effect during simulation depend on the selected pedestrian model. Attributes such as width, length, imgFile and color are always used for visualization.

Repeated persons (personFlows)#

To define multiple persons with the same plan, the element <personFlow> can be used. It uses the same parameters and child elements as <person> except for the departure time. The ids of the created persons are "personFlowId.runningNumber" and they are distributed either equally or randomly in the given interval. The following additional parameters are known:

Attribute Name Value Type Description
begin float (s) or human-readable-time or triggered first person departure time
end float(s) end of departure interval (if undefined, defaults to 24 hours)
personsPerHour* or perHour* float(#/h) number of persons per hour, equally spaced
period* float(s) insert equally spaced persons at that period
probability* float([0,1]) probability for emitting a person each second, see also Simulation/Randomness
number* int(#) total number of persons, equally spaced

*: Only one of these attributes is allowed.

Examples#

   <personFlow id="p" begin="0" end="10" period="2">
       <walk from="beg" to="end"/>
   </personFlow>
   <personFlow id="person" begin="0" end="1" number="4" departPos="80">
       <walk from="2/3to1/3" to="1/3to0/3" arrivalPos="55"/>
       <ride from="1/3to0/3" to="0/4to1/4" lines="train0"/>
       <walk from="0/4to1/4" to="1/4to2/4" arrivalPos="45"/>
       <stop lane="1/4to2/4_0" duration="20" startPos="40" actType="singing"/>
       <ride from="1/4to2/4" to="3/4to4/4" lines="car0"/>
   </personFlow>

Simulation input#

The input for a person consists of a sequence of stages of the 3 types given below.

Note

Person plans can also be generated with intermodal routing

Rides#

Rides define the start and end point of a movement with a single mode of transport (e.g. a car or a bus). They are child elements of plan definitions.

Attribute Type Range Default Remark
lines list valid line or vehicle ids or ANY ANY list of vehicle alternatives to take for the ride
from string valid edge ids - id of the start edge (optional, if it is a subsequent movement or starts in a vehicle)
to string valid edge ids - id of the destination edge (optional, if a busStop or other stopping place is given)
arrivalPos float(m) end of edge arrival position on the destination edge
busStop string valid bus stop ids - id of the destination stop
parkingArea string valid parkingArea ids - id of the destination stop
trainStop string valid trainStop ids - id of the destination stop
chargingStation string valid chargingStation ids - id of the destination stop
containerStop string valid containerStop ids - id of the destination stop
group string "" id of the travel group. Persons with the same group may share a taxi ride

The vehicle to use has to exist already (either public transport or some existing passenger car) and the route to take is defined by the vehicle. The person enters the vehicle if it stops on the 'from' edge and any of the following conditions are met

  • the 'line' attribute of the vehicle or the 'id' of the vehicle is given in the list defined by the 'lines' attribute of the ride OR the lines attribute contains 'ANY' and the vehicle stops at the destination 'busStop' of the ride (or at the destination edge if no destination busStop is defined).
  • the vehicle has a triggered stop and the person is position within the range of startpos,endPos of the stop.
  • the vehicle has a timed stop and the person is waiting within 10m of the vehicle position

The position of the person is either it's departPos or the arrival position of the preceding plan element

A given bus stop (or any other stopping place) may serve as a replacement for a destination edge and arrival position. If an arrival position is given nevertheless it has to be inside the range of the stop.

The positions of persons in a vehicle depend on the 'guiShape' parameter of the vehicle as well as it's dimensions. The offset between the front of the vehicle and the first passenger placement can be configured by adding <param key="frontSeatPos" value="3.14"/>to the vType definition of the vehicle.

Note

up to version 1.15.0 attribute 'lines' was mandatory.

Walks#

Walks define a pedestrian movement. They are child elements of plan definitions.

Attribute Type Range Default Remark
route string valid route id - the id of the route to walk
edges list valid edge ids - id of the edges to walk
from string valid edge ids - id of the start edge (optional, if it is a subsequent movement)
to string valid edge ids - id of the destination edge (optional, if a busStop or other stopping place is given)
duration float(s) >0 - override walk duration (otherwise determined by the person type and the pedestrian dynamics)
speed float(m/s) >0 - override walking speed (otherwise determined by the person type and individual speed factor)
arrivalPos float(m) middle of edge arrival position on the destination edge
departPosLat float(m), string ("random", "left", "right", "center") right side in walking direction custom lateral position on lane at departure (details)
busStop string valid bus stop ids - id of the destination stop
parkingArea string valid parkingArea ids - id of the destination stop
trainStop string valid trainStop ids - id of the destination stop
chargingStation string valid chargingStation ids - id of the destination stop
containerStop string valid containerStop ids - id of the destination stop

You can define either a route-id, or a list of edges to travel or a from and a to edge. In the first and second case the route edges are traveled in the listed order. They do not need to be joined in the net. If travelling between stops on the same edge then only include the edge once. In the latter case a shortest path calculation is performed and it is an error if there is no path connecting from and to.

When given as router input input using the attributes from and to will be transformed into a walk using the attribute edges by routing along edges permissible for pedestrian (i.e. sidewalks).

A given bus stop (or other stopping place) may serve as a replacement for a destination edge and arrival position. If an arrival position is given nevertheless, it has to be inside the range of the stop.

Stops#

Stops define a delay until the next element of a plan is started. They can be used to model activities such as working or shopping. Stops for persons follow the specification at Specification#Stops. However, only the attributes lane, duration and until are evaluated. Using these attributes it is possible to model activities with a fixed duration as well as those with a fixed end time. If a person needs to be transferred between two positions without delay, it is possible to use two stops in conjunction.

Simulation behavior#

A person is starting her life at her depart time on the source (resp. first) edge of the first walk, ride or stop. She tries to start the next step of her plan.

Riding#

The person checks whether a vehicle with a line from the given list is stopping at the given edge. If such a vehicle exists and the person is positioned between the start and end position of the vehicle's stop, the person will enter the vehicle and start its ride. If such a vehicle exists but the person is not positioned between the start and end position of the vehicle's stop, the person will still enter if the vehicle is triggered by the a person and the distance between person and vehicle is at most 10 metres. It does not check whether the vehicle has the aspired destination on the current route. The first time the vehicle stops (on a well defined stop) at the destination edge, the ride is finished and the person proceeds with the next step in the plan.

Walking#

The walking behavior of a person depends on the selected pedestrian model. Generally, the person follows the given sequence of edges with a speed bounded by the desiredMaxSpeed attribute of the persons type. It starts either at the position from the previous stage of its plan or at the specified departPos if no previous stage exists. The walk concludes at the specified arrivalPos which defaults to the end of the final edge. Both position attributes support the special values max and random which work as described for vehicles.

Stopping#

The person stops for the maximum of currentTime + duration and until.

Access#

Whenever a person starts or ends a walk at a busStop or trainStop (collectively called stoppingPlace), an access stage inserted into the person plan under the following conditions:

  • the walk ends on an edge that is different from the stoppingPlace edge and the stoppingPlace has an <access> definition that connects it with the final edge of the walk
  • the walk starts on an edge that is differnt from the stoppingPlace edge and the stoppingPlce has an <access> definition that connects it with the first edge of the walk

The time spent in an access stage is equal to the "length" attribute of the access divided by the walking speed of the person. No interaction between persons on the same access element takes place.

Starting the simulation in a Vehicle#

It is possible to start the person simulation simultaneously with the start of a vehicle simulation within that vehicle. I.e. the person starts with a ride within the vehicle, when the vehicle is inserted to the simulation. This is possible for a person definition and a personFlow. In both cases the vehicle must already be loaded in the input file.

Note

The starting vehicle must already be loaded in the input file

Starting a person in a vehicle#

To start the simulation of a person while riding in a vehicle, the depart attribute of the person must be set to triggered. Additionally the first stage of the plan must be a ride. The from attribute is not necessary, since the vehicle start position is already defined and used. The vehicle is indicated by using only the vehicle ID for the lines attribute of the ride.

Starting multiple persons in a vehicle#

To start the simulation of multiple persons with the same plan while riding in a vehicle, personFlow can be used. This only works for the distribution attribute number, which defines the number of persons inserted into the vehicle, and the attribute begin="triggered". The end attribute is ignored or can be left. Additionally the first stage of the plan must be a ride. The from attribute is not necessary, since the vehicle start position is already defined and used. The vehicle is indicated by using only the vehicle ID for the lines attribute of the ride.

Examples#

Person p0 starts within the vehicle defined by trip v0 at edge gneE0. The ride ends at edge gneE1.

<trip id="v0" depart="15.00" from="gneE0" to="gneE2">
    <stop lane="gneE1_1" duration="60.00"/>
</trip>
<person id="p0" depart="triggered">
    <ride to="gneE1" lines="v0"/>
    <walk to="gneE3"/>
</person>

Persons defined by personFlow p0 start within the vehicle defined by trip v0 at edge gneE0. The ride ends at edge gneE1.

<trip id="v0" depart="15.00" from="gneE0" to="gneE2">
    <stop lane="gneE1_1" duration="60.00"/>
</trip>
<personFlow id="p0" begin="triggered" number="2">
    <ride to="gneE1" lines="v0"/>
    <walk to="gneE3"/>
</person>

Router input#

The following definitions can be processed with duarouter and sumo.

PersonTrips#

A personTrip defines the start and end point of a movement with optional changes in mode. They are child elements to the person. In order to process a personTrip with mode public, the public transport network has to be defined as well. Currently bicycle and/or car can only be the first mode. It is not possible to switch to a car or bicycle after a different mode except when adding 'taxi' to the available modes.

The rules for selecting the best itinerary through the network are described at intermodal routing.

If the computed plan starts with a car or bicycle, a vehicle for use by the person will be automatically generated and set to depart="triggered". A car will be named 'PERSON_ID_0' and bicycle will be named 'PERSON_ID_b0' where 'PERSON_ID' is the id of the person. If a vehicle with this id already exists in the simulation, this vehicle will be used instead (and the user has to ensure that it starts at an appropriate location).

Attribute Type Range Default Remark
from string valid edge ids - id of the start edge (optional, if it is a subsequent movement)
to string valid edge ids - id of the destination edge
via string valid edge ids - ids of the intermediate edges (not implemented yet)
busStop string valid bus stop ids - id of the destination stop
vTypes list valid vType ids - list of possible vehicle types to take
modes list any combination of "public", "car", "bicycle", "taxi" - list of possible traffic modes (separated by ' '). Walking is always possible regardless of this value.
departPos float(m) 0 initial position on the starting edge (deprecated, determined by the departPos of the person or the arrival pos of the previous step)
arrivalPos float(m) middle of edge arrival position on the destination edge
group string "" id of the travel group. Persons with the same group may share a taxi ride

Note

It is an error for subsequent trips to be unconnected.

Note

If no itinerary for performing the trip is found and the option --ignore-route-errors is set, the trip will be transformed into a walk which consists of the start and arrival edge. The person will teleport to complete the walk.

Note

when attribute vTypes is used, the person may start with any of the given vehicle types at the from-edge. Including 'car' in modes is equivalent to vTypes="DEFAULT_VEHTYPE". Including 'bicycle' in modes is equivalent to vTypes="DEFAULT_BIKETYPE". The vehicles will be automatically generated when used.

Example#

The following is an example for a person who walks to a train station, rides the train, alights and walks for a bit, then stops for an activity and finally gets into a car and drives away.

<routes>
    <person id="person0" depart="0">
        <walk from="2/3to1/3" to="1/3to0/3" departPos="80" arrivalPos="55"/>
        <ride from="1/3to0/3" to="0/4to1/4" lines="train0"/>
        <walk from="0/4to1/4" to="1/4to2/4" arrivalPos="30"/>
        <stop lane="1/4to2/4_0" duration="20" startPos="40" actType="singing"/>
        <ride from="1/4to2/4" to="3/4to4/4" lines="car0"/>
    </person>

    <vehicle id="train0" depart="50">
        <route edges="1/4to1/3 1/3to0/3 0/3to0/4 0/4to1/4 1/4to1/3"/>
        <stop busStop="busStop0" until="120" duration="10"/>
        <stop busStop="busStop1" until="180" duration="10"/>
    </vehicle>

    <vehicle id="car0" depart="triggered">
        <route edges="1/4to2/4 2/4to3/4 3/4to4/4" departPos="30"/>
        <stop lane="1/4to2/4_0" duration="20" startPos="40" endPos="60"/>
    </vehicle>

</routes>

You can omit the from attribute in the second and following movements and you can use bus stops as destinations. For trains the busStops should have access lanes. The movement of person0 in the example above could also be written as

<person id="person0" depart="0">
    <walk from="2/3to1/3" busStop="busStop0" departPos="80" arrivalPos="55"/>
    <ride busStop="busStop1" lines="train0"/>
    <walk to="1/4to2/4" arrivalPos="30"/>
    <stop lane="1/4to2/4_0" duration="20" startPos="40" actType="singing"/>
    <ride from="1/4to2/4" to="3/4to4/4" lines="car0"/>
</person>

Visualization#

Persons are rendered in the GUI with the configured detail-level. When assigning a type with attribute imgFile, the person may be rendered with an image. By default, the image will not be rotated (suitable for abstract icons). However, when setting the types guiShape="pedestrian" the image will be rotated according to the persons location and stage.

Person Output#

Most of the Simulation outputs are tailored for vehicles. Only a small number of output formats support persons:

Devices#

Person-devices are used to model and configure different aspects such as output (person-device.fcd) or behavior (person-device.rerouting).

The following device names are supported and can be used for the placeholder <DEVICENAME> below:

Assignment of devices via simulation options works the same as for vehicles except for the fact that all options are prefixed with --person-device.DEVICENAME instead of --device.DEVICENAME.

Assignment of devices via <vType> or <person>-parameters works in the same way as it does for vehicles.

Planned features#

The following features are not yet implemented.